An electric pallet truck
is a loading, unloading and handling vehicle powered by a DC power supply (battery). According to foreign statistics, the output of electric forklifts in Japan has exceeded 1/3 of the total amount of forklifts. In some Western European countries such as Germany and Italy, the proportion of electric forklifts reaches about 50%. The rapid development of electric forklifts is mainly due to the continuous progress of various manufacturers. Most of the product appearance adopts streamlined design, and the appearance is more beautiful. The main manufacturers have achieved large-scale production, specialized production of parts and components, and assembly line operations. The processing accuracy and the degree of automation have been improved. In terms of new materials and new processes, the most important manifestation is the application of transistor controllers. Its appearance has greatly improved the performance of electric forklifts. Generally speaking, the durability, reliability and applicability of electric forklifts have been significantly improved, which can completely compete with internal combustion engine forklifts. This article mainly reviews the structural characteristics and development of the four-point electric balance forklift, which has a large sales volume in the market. 1. Body The body is the main structure of the forklift, which is generally made of steel plates above 5mm. It is characterized by no girders, and the body has high strength and can withstand heavy loads. Regarding the placement of the battery on the forklift body, there are two different manufacturing techniques, that is, the battery is placed between the front and rear axles or on the rear axle. These two technologies represent the two best choices for forklift design, and each has advantages and disadvantages, and has good stability. However, the available space in the vehicle body is small, which limits the capacity of the battery. This is for the load of less than 3t. Forklifts are not prominent, but for those large tonnage forklifts that require high battery capacity within 8 hours of working hours with complex movement conditions, it becomes serious. Using large-capacity batteries to extend the continuous working time of electric forklifts, thereby expanding the scope of use of electric forklifts, which is the common goal pursued by all forklift manufacturers. In the second case, when the battery is arranged on the rear axle of the forklift, the center of gravity of the forklift is increased, and the stability of the whole machine is affected. As the height of the forklift increases, the driver's seat increases, so the driver has a wider vision during operation, especially It is more suitable when handling bulky goods. 2. Mast At present, most electric forklifts at home and abroad have adopted wide-view mast, and the lifting hydraulic cylinders have been placed in the middle instead of placed on both sides. There are two positions for the hydraulic cylinder: one is the hydraulic cylinder behind the main frame; the other is the hydraulic cylinder outside the main frame. Masts are generally divided into standard type, two-section type or three-section type. The lifting height of domestic forklifts is generally between 2~5m, and most of them are 3m and less than 3m, while the lifting height of foreign electric forklifts is generally between 2~6m. Due to the high degree of three-dimensional warehouse, so lifting With a height of more than 3m, the demand for electric forklifts is much higher than that in China. 3. Cab Since most electric forklifts are used for indoor transportation, there is generally no closed cab, and only a protective overhead guard is installed. The most advanced electric forklifts in the world are developed according to advanced ergonomics principles, using comfortable hydraulic damping suspension seats, which can be adjusted according to the driver's height and weight. The dual-pedal acceleration system does not need to steer when the forklift changes the direction of travel, and the inclination of the steering wheel column can be adjusted according to the driver's requirements. The central hydraulic control lever integrates the lifting of the mast and the front and rear in one. Therefore, these new designs greatly reduce the labor intensity of the driver. 4. Drive system The drive system is one of the key components of electric forklifts. There are great differences in the structure of the drive system of various forklifts, and there are also differences in the layout of a single motor. Because it is driven by dual motors, it has good acceleration and climbing performance and large traction. It adopts an electronic full-speed system instead of the original mechanical differential system, and its usability has been greatly improved. 5. Hydraulic system Electric forklifts generally use a separate motor to drive a gear pump to provide hydraulic power for the lifting and tilting of its mast working system. At present, domestic forklifts do not realize the speed adjustment of the hydraulic motor. After the hydraulic motor is started, it can only rotate at a high speed, and will not automatically adjust with the change of function and pressure. Cause a waste of energy. .
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