The battery is the source of power for electric forklifts. At present, the key factor restricting the development of electric vehicles is the unsatisfactory power battery. The main performance indicators of electric vehicle batteries are specific energy, specific power and service life. To enable electric vehicles to compete with internal combustion engine vehicles, the key is to develop batteries with high specific energy, high specific power, long service life, and low cost. 1. Lead-acid battery Lead-acid battery has a history of more than 100 years and is widely used as a starting power source for internal combustion engine vehicles. It is also a mature electric vehicle battery, with good reliability, easy availability of raw materials, and low price; the specific power can basically meet the power requirements of electric vehicles. But it has two major shortcomings; one is low specific energy, the mass and volume occupied are too large, and the mileage is short on one charge; the other is short service life and high cost of use. Second, nickel-metal hydride storage battery Ni-metal hydride storage battery is an alkaline battery. The nickel-metal hydride storage battery has a long cycle life and has no memory effect, but the price is higher. Although its initial purchase cost is high, its long-term actual use cost is not high due to its advantages in energy and service life. At present, foreign companies producing nickel-metal hydride batteries for electric vehicles are mainly a joint venture of Ovonie, Toyota and Panasonic. Ovonie has two kinds of unit batteries, 80A·h and 130A·h, with specific energy of 75-80W·h and a cycle life of more than 600 times. This kind of battery is installed on several electric vehicles for trial. One type of vehicle can travel 345km on a single charge, and one vehicle travels more than 80,000 kilometers in a year. Due to the high price, mass production is not yet available. The country has developed 55A·h and 100A·h unit batteries with a specific energy of 65W·h and a power density greater than 800W of nickel-hydrogen storage batteries. 三. Lithium-ion battery As a new type of high-voltage, high-energy density rechargeable battery, the lithium-ion secondary battery has unique physical and electrochemical properties and has a wide range of civil and national defense applications. Its outstanding features are: light weight, large energy storage, no pollution, no memory effect, and long service life. In the case of the same volume and weight, the storage capacity of lithium batteries is 1.6 times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries and 4 times that of nickel-cadmium batteries. At present, human beings only use 20% to 30% of its theoretical power. The development prospects are very bright. . At the same time, it is a truly green battery that will not pollute the environment and is currently the best battery that can be applied to electric vehicles. my country began to develop and utilize lithium-ion batteries in the 1990s, and has made breakthroughs so far, and developed lithium-ion batteries with independent intellectual property rights. Four. Nickel-cadmium batteries The application of nickel-cadmium batteries is second only to lead-acid batteries, with specific energy up to 55W•h and specific power exceeding 190W. It can be charged quickly and has a long cycle life. It is more than twice that of lead-acid batteries and can reach more than 2,000 times, but the price is 4 to 5 times that of lead-acid batteries. Although its initial purchase cost is high, its long-term actual use cost is not high due to its advantages in energy and service life. The disadvantage is that there is a 'memory effectIt must be fully charged and discharged after about ten times of use. If there is a 'memory effectIn addition, cadmium is poisonous, so pay attention to recycling during use to avoid environmental pollution caused by cadmium. 5. Sodium-sulfur battery The advantages of sodium-sulfur battery: One is higher specific energy. Its theoretical specific energy is 760W•h, which is actually greater than 100W•h, which is 3 to 4 times that of lead-acid batteries; the other is high current and high power discharge. The discharge current density can generally reach 200-300mA2, and can release 3 times its inherent energy in an instant; the other is the high charging and discharging efficiency. Due to the use of solid electrolyte, there is no self-discharge and side reactions that usually use liquid electrolyte secondary batteries, and the charge-discharge current efficiency is almost 100%. The disadvantages of sodium-sulfur batteries are that their operating temperature is between 300°C and 350°C. Therefore, a certain amount of heating and heat preservation is required when the battery is working. The high temperature corrosion is serious, and the battery life is short. High-performance vacuum insulation technology has been adopted, which can effectively solve this problem. There are also problems such as performance stability and unsatisfactory use safety. The cycle life was 1200 times, and the best vehicle drove 2300km without failure during the loading test.
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