Three leakages (oil leakage, water leakage, air leakage) are current stubborn diseases of machinery, especially the leakage of system of terminal equipment is more common. It is mainly due to the pressure difference generated when the oil flows in the components and pipelines and the gaps between the components, which cause leakage. Serious leakage of the system will cause the system pressure to fail to build up, affect the work safety of the equipment, and cause poor appearance and environmental pollution, increase production costs, and reduce productivity. Therefore, leakage in the system must be controlled. 1. Leakage classification There are two main types of leakage in the system of mechanical equipment; leakage at fixed seals and leakage at moving seals. The leaks at fixed seals mainly include the bottom of the cylinder and the connections of various pipe joints. Movement seals mainly include cylinder piston rods, multi-way valve stems and other parts. The oil leakage can also be divided into external leakage and internal leakage. External leakage is mainly the leakage of oil from the system to the environment. Internal leakage means that oil flows from the high pressure side to the low pressure side in the system due to the existence of the pressure difference between the high and low pressure sides and the failure of the seals. 2. Leakage reasons (1) Design factors (1) Selection of seals The reliability of the system depends to a large extent on the design of the system seal and the selection of seals. Due to the unreasonable selection of the seal structure in the design, the seal The selection of parts is not in compliance with the specifications, and the compatibility of oil and sealing materials, load conditions, ultimate pressure, and working speed are not considered in the design. These all directly or indirectly cause system leakage to varying degrees. In addition, due to the dust and impurities in the operating environment of the machine, suitable dust-proof seals should be selected in the design to prevent dust and other dirt from entering the system to damage the seal and contaminate the oil, resulting in leakage. (2) pallet shock and vibration Long-term shock and vibration can cause pipe joints to loosen and cause leakage. This is a failure that we often encounter. (2) Manufacturing and assembly factors (1) Manufacturing factors: All components and sealing parts have strict dimensional tolerances, surface treatments, surface roughness and shape tolerances. If it is out of tolerance in the manufacturing process, such as: the piston radius of the cylinder, the depth or width of the seal groove, the size of the hole with the seal ring is out of tolerance or due to processing problems, it has burrs or pits, and the chrome plating falls off, etc. The parts will lose the sealing function due to deformation, scratches, crushing or uncompacting. (2) Assembly factors: The components should be free from barbaric operations during assembly. Excessive force will cause the parts to deform, especially the cylinder block, sealing flange, etc. with copper rods, etc.; the parts should be carefully inspected before assembly, and when assembling The parts should be dipped in a little oil and gently pressed in. When cleaning, use diesel oil, especially rubber components such as seals, dust rings, O-rings, etc. If gasoline is used, it will be easy to age and lose its original elasticity, thereby losing the seal. function. (3) Wear and damage of the dynamic seals The dynamic seals are generally made of oil-resistant rubber materials, which will cause aging and cracking after long-term use. Abrasives, dust, and impurities in the oil will accelerate the aging and damage of the seal over time. If the parts are damaged by collisions during work, the seals will be scratched. These conditions are most likely to cause internal leakage. The main prevention and control measures for leakage should ensure the geometric accuracy of each element in the design and processing links; correctly select seals; reduce shock and vibration: can be absorbed by shock absorbers, use accumulators as much as possible, and appropriately use pressure control valves to protect system components. Install the pipe joints and replace each piping with oil return block. Choose the correct assembly and repair method; if the components are damaged, they should be dealt with in time, especially the piston rod and cylinder barrel are most likely to affect the seals. In addition, try to use special tools in the assembly of the seals and apply a little on the seal ring. grease. .
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