The power source of electric forklifts for walking and lifting is the electric motor, and the quality of the electric motor directly affects the quality of the whole forklift. If the motor is improperly selected, the electric pallet truck
may have problems such as high operating noise, current exceeding the rated value, and the motor being burned. This paper analyzes and studies the problems of a certain type of 0.8t battery forklift lifting motor, and proposes improvement measures. 1. There are problems with the hoisting motor. (1) The hoisting motor itself is defective. A certain type of 0.8t forklift is limited by the internal space, and its hoisting motor uses a permanent magnet motor. The use of permanent magnet motors for battery forklift lifting has the following shortcomings: One is that permanent magnet motors are compared with DC compound and series motors (such motors are usually used in battery forklift hydraulic pump motors). When the load increases, the required current cannot be Corresponding increase, that is, poor overload capacity. The second is that the permanent magnet motor demagnetization phenomenon is more serious under the high temperature (body temperature exceeds 85 ℃), and the output power is significantly reduced after demagnetization. Third, when the power of a low-voltage (below 48V) permanent magnet motor is greater than 1kW, its manufacturing is difficult, the quality is difficult to guarantee, and the reliability is poor. (2) The lifting hydraulic system has a great influence on the lifting motor. The lifting hydraulic system of this type of 0.8t forklift is composed of a lifting hydraulic pump, a lifting cylinder, and a multi-way valve. The hydraulic system is used as the load of the lifting motor, and the following factors affect the reliability of the lifting motor's operation: One is the displacement of the lifting hydraulic pump. When the system pressure is determined, the greater the displacement of the lifting hydraulic pump, the faster the lifting speed, and the greater the power demand for the lifting motor. Therefore, after the hydraulic system pressure and the power of the lifting motor are determined, if a lifting hydraulic pump with a larger displacement is selected, the lifting motor will be in an overload state. The second is the characteristic of the multi-way valve. If the multi-way valve has a poor starting ratio (the cooperation between the multi-way valve and other components of the lifting hydraulic system), it will cause a large pressure loss in the hydraulic system and cause the lifting motor to overload. 2. Improvement measures (1) Improvement plan The poor performance of the multi-way valve used in small-tonnage battery forklifts has become a problem for the entire industry. At present, various multi-way valve manufacturers have not found a good solution in this regard. Therefore, we mainly improve the life of the 0.8t battery forklift lifting motor from the following two aspects: First, the lifting motor uses a low-speed, high-torque DC series motor with the same power as the original permanent magnet motor; the second is to reduce the lifting hydraulic pressure. Pump displacement. (2) Test and analysis Before the improvement, the rated power of the permanent magnet motor was 3k W, the rated current was 147A, and the rated speed was 2000r/min. The low-speed, high-torque DC series motor selected after the improvement has a rated power of 3k W, a rated current of 170A, and a rated speed of 1500r/min. After using a low-speed, high-torque DC series motor, we tested the forklift in the lifting state and the lifting hydraulic pump under different displacement conditions. The test results are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. The full-load lifting current is slightly higher than the rated current of the motor, and the lifting noise is slightly higher and harsher. The lifting speed meets the design requirements and needs continuous improvement. Through the test, it can be known that when the displacement of the lifting hydraulic pump is reduced from 10mL/r to 9mL/r, the full-load lifting current is between 128 and 135A, which is less than the rated current of the lifting motor (170A). 3. The improvement effect After the above improvements are implemented on this 0.8t battery forklift, the matching problem of the lifting hydraulic pump and the lifting motor has been solved. The technical performance and reliability of the lifting motor have been improved, and no lifting operations will occur. The fault is large noise, the hoisting current exceeds the rated value, and the hoisting motor is burned out. The success of this improvement has improved the product quality of this 0.8t battery forklift.
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