Material handling machinery is mainly used for loading and unloading, transportation, lifting, stacking and storage of materials in enterprises (including docks, stockyards, mines and commercial warehouses, etc.). Generally include lifting machinery, conveyors, loading and unloading machinery, handling vehicles and storage equipment, etc.; customarily does not include vehicles, railway vehicles, aircraft and ships and other transportation vehicles, as well as pipelines for conveying gases and liquids. The application of material handling machinery is of great significance in production. This is mainly because the amount of material handling is very large. For some steel complexes, for every ton of steel produced, the total amount of raw materials, fuels, semi-finished products, finished products and wastes that need to be handled It often reaches more than 50 tons; in addition, the cost of material handling is high, and the cost of material handling in industrial countries often accounts for about 25% of the product cost; material handling takes up a lot of labor, and in enterprises with low mechanization, movers often It accounts for more than 15% of the total number of workers; when carrying heavy objects that cannot be carried by humans and working in areas with high temperatures or radioactive materials, machinery must be used to carry them. Therefore, adequate attention should be paid to material handling systems in production, and advanced and applicable material handling machinery should be used as much as possible to reduce labor intensity, reduce product damage, protect worker health, improve labor productivity and product quality, and reduce production costs. In daily life, some simple and light material handling machinery, such as various trolleys, are often used. Human beings first carried materials by hand, carried, and carried on their shoulders. Later, they gradually used animal power and created simple machines such as levers, wheels, pulleys, and trolleys. Modern material handling machinery began in the 19th century. Around the 1830s, steam engine-driven hoisting machinery and conveyors appeared; at the end of the 19th century, due to the application of internal combustion engines, material handling machinery developed rapidly; in 1917, forklifts that could both lift and move appeared in the 1970s The emergence of computer-controlled material handling mechanical systems has brought material handling into a highly automated operation stage. Material handling machinery can be roughly divided into five categories according to their functions: hoisting machinery, conveyors, loading and unloading machinery, handling vehicles and storage equipment. Generally speaking, hoisting machinery is used for lifting and transporting, but the transporting distance is short, and its mechanism is intermittently moving; the conveyor can continuously transport materials, and the transport route is generally fixed, mostly used to transport bulk materials; loading and unloading The machine can pick up and load and unload materials by itself. The handling vehicle can flexibly arrange the handling route, the economic transportation distance is long, and it can be operated indoors or outdoors, with driving wheels; storage equipment is a device that stacks, picks up, and stores materials in the warehouse, including silo devices, high-bay warehouses and delivery Material machine and so on. With the development of industry, many machines have multiple functions and uses. For example, forklifts are handling vehicles that can be used for loading and unloading and also for lifting heavy objects. Material handling machinery is for production, and its design and selection should comply with the needs of the production process, but the creation of new material handling machinery often leads to changes and improvements in production processes. For example, the emergence of the bucket wheel stacker and reclaimer has formed an automated large-scale bulk material handling system with the bucket wheel stacker and reclaimer as the heart, belt conveyors as blood vessels, and electronic computers as the nerve center, thus changing the port, The layout of bulk material yards in mines and thermal power plants; workshops where forklifts are used to replace bridge cranes for handling operations can simplify plant structure and reduce infrastructure costs. In the second half of the 20th century, unitized transportation has been greatly developed. The standardization of containers and the promotion of intermodal transportation have simplified the loading and unloading of water and land transportation, and caused changes in the layout of stations and ports, and the structure of railway vehicles and ships. . When researching and selecting material handling machinery, one should not only understand the characteristics of the material, the purpose and requirements of the handling, and whether the environment is disturbed and polluted during the operation, but also must be considered in conjunction with the entire production or operation process, so that the handling machinery should be After the various machinery is closely linked to become a system to reduce loading and unloading links and increase economic benefits.
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